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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

INTRODUCTORY  ESSAY.
1.  GUGE or HUNDES is wholly under Chinese influence,
and is comprised between the Himalaya and its Cis-Satlej
branch.   It extends from the lakes of Mansarowar and Rakas-
tal down the course of the Satlej to Kunawar.   ^e surface
of Guge differs remarkably from the rest of Tibet in the
greater extent and depth of, an alluvial deposit, found else-
where in Tibet in smaller quantity, and here forming an
undulating surface, gradually declining from 15,200 feet^tte
level of the lakes, to 10,000 feet at the confines of Kunawar.
This province, familiarly known as the plain of Tibet, and
which has mainly given rise to the erroneous impression of
Tibet being a steppe, plain, or table-land, is 120 miles long
and 15 to 60 in breadth, and is traversed by the Satlej and
its various feeders, which flow in deep narrow ravines 1000 to
3000 feet below its mean level.
The botany of Guge is scanty in the extreme; the country
has been traversed by Moorcroft and Captain H. Strachey, and
visited by Captain RJ Strachey and Mr. Winterbottom, who
collected fifty or sixty species of plants around the lakes, and
calculated that not one-twentieth of its surface was covered
with vegetation,
2.  PITI and PABANO.—Of these two valleys, that of the
Piti river is entered from Kunawar by the Hangarang Pass,
elevated 14,800 feet.   The Parang Pass, over the range divi-
ding the Parang from the Piti rivers, is 18,500 feet. The lofty
platform of Rupchu, which extends from the Parang Pass
across the main chain of the Himalaya to the adjacent head
of the Zanskar valley, and from the Chumoreri lake to the
Lachalang and Tunglung Passes, is elevated 15-16,000 feet;
Chumoreri lake, situated on it, being 15,200.   The vegetation
of the whole province is extremely scanty.
8. ZANSKAE occupies the north slope of the main Hiroalayan
chain, parallel with Kishtwar on the' south.   Thee change m
,the vegetation on, crossing the Umasi Pass (18,000 feet) from
Kishtwar is very sudden, only two or three species found
at 13-13,000 feet on the Tiietan face icing identifiable with